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RISE OF NATIONALISM IN EUROPE

Nationalism: The desire of people having common identities to have their own nation. It is love and pride for one’s own nation and readiness to sacrifice to protect nation’s sovereign power

  • Sorrieu visualised “Democratic Socialist Republic”
  • Peoples of America and Europe – men and women – of all classed offer homage to the statue of liberty
  • In this Utopian vision, people are grouped as distinct nations, identified by their Flags and National costumes
  • USA and Switzerland have already passed by the statues. They were already republics
  • France has just reached the statue
  • It’s followed by Germany.
  • In 1948, Germany as Nation State not yet existed.
  • Austria, the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, Lombardy, Poland, England, Ireland, Hungary and Russia followed them.
  • Christ, saints and angels gaze upon the scene.
  • They have been used by the artist to symbolise fraternity among the nations
  • Nationalism emerged in 19th C in Europe
  • The result : Multinational dynastic empires vanished, and Nation States emerged
  • Commonalities did not exist
  • It had to be forged through struggles, by leaders and common people
  • In this lesson we learn about those processes

The first clear expression of nationalism came with the French Revolution in 1789

The revolution led to the transfer of sovereignty from Absolutist monarch to body of French citizens

The Revolution proclaimed that it was the people who would henceforth constitute the nation and shape its destiny

French revolutionaries introduced various measures and practices to develop the feeling of collective identity

Some were practical and some emotional

The ideas of la patrie (the fatherland) and le citoyen (the citizen) were introduced

The intention: To emphasise the notion of a united community enjoying equal rights under a constitution

French Tricolour replaced the Royal Standard

The Estates General was renamed National Assembly and was voted by active citizens

New hymns were composed, oaths taken, and martyrs commemorated, all in the name of the nation

Centralised administration with uniform law came into being

Internal customs duties and dues were abolished, and a uniform system of weights and measures was adopted

Regional dialects were discouraged, and French as spoken and written in Paris became the common language of the people

The French Revolutionaries declared that it was their destiny to liberate the peoples of other countries of Europe and help them establish Nation Sates

Students, merchants and educated middle class people set up Jacobin clubs in different cities of Europe

This paved way for the entry of French army to Belgium, Switzerland, Holland and much of Italy

The French army carried the idea of Nationalism

Why was there mixed reaction of people for the Napoleon’s army?