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RISE OF NATIONALISM IN EUROPE

Nationalism: The desire of people having common identities to have their own nation. It is love and pride for one’s own nation and readiness to sacrifice to protect nation’s sovereign power

Rise of Nationalism in Europe by Anonymous 98V7YgXGh on Scribd

MCQs and Important Statements

 

 1.  The Pact Between Nations is a print prepared by

a) Frederic Sorrieu

b) Gottfried Herder

c) Karol Kurpinski

d) Mazzini

2. Which of the following was the German philosopher who stressed on folk tales, songs etc..

a) Johann Gottfried Herder

b) Karol Kurpinski

c) Garibaldi

d) William II

3. Which of the following revolutionaries was made to live in exile and went back to Italy help in the unification.

a) Giuseppe Mazzini

b) Giuseppe Garibaldi

c) Count D Cavour

d) Friedrich Wilhelm IV

4. Assertion: Karol Karol Kurpinski popularised Polanise and Mazurka

Reason: His country was occupied by Russia, and he wanted to keep the nationalist sentiments alive

a)     Both A and R are true but R doesn’t explain A

b)     A is True but R is False

c)     Both A and R are True and R explains A

d)     A is False but R is True

5. Assertion: Mazzini relentlessly opposed revolutions.

Reason: Metternich termed his as the greatest enemy of their social order.

a)      Both A and R are true but R doesn’t explain A

b)       A is True but R is False

c)     Both A and R are True and R explains A

d)     A is False but R is True

6. Which of the following forms of governments was relentlessly opposed by Guiseppe Mazzini?

a) Democracy

b) Dictatorship

c) Monarchy

d) Theocracy

7. Identify the pair of King and the Count when Italy was unified.

a) Friedrich Wilhelm IV and Bismarck

b) Friedrich Wilhelm IV and Cavour

c) William II and Bismarck

d) William II and Cavour

8. Identify the pair of King and the Chancellor when Germany was unified.

a) Kaiser William I and Bismarck

b) Friedrich Wilhelm IV and Cavour

c) William II and Bismarck

d) William II and Cavour

9) Which of the following English poets personally went to Greece to support its independence?

a) Lord Byron

b) William Wordsworth

c) W. B. Yeats

d) S. T. Coleridge

10) Which of the following travelled length and breadth of German States to collect folk tales?

a) Otto Von Bismarck

b) Grimm Brothers

c) Count D Cavour

d) Garibaldi

11. Which of the following was considered as the architect of German Unification?

a) Otto Von Bismarck

b) Grimm Brothers

c) Count D Cavour

d) Garibaldi

12. Identify the pair that helped unification of Italy under Victor Emanuel II.

a) Giuseppe Mazzini and Giuseppe Garibaldi

b) Giuseppe Mazzini and Count D Cavour

c) Giuseppe Garibaldi and Count D Cavour

d) None of the above

13. Assertion: Napoleon brought back democracy in France

Reason: He gave right to property to people, abolished privileges enjoyed by birth and brought equality before law.

a)     Both A and R are true but R doesn’t explain A

b)     A is True but R is False

c)     Both A and R are True and R explains A

d)     A is False but R is True

     14. Which of the following is the female allegory of France?

a) Germania

b) Marianne

c) Britannia

d) None of these

15. Which of the following was not part of the Balkan region after 1871?

a) Macedonia

b) Albania

c) Greece

d) Serbia

16. In which of the following years did Greece attained independence from Turks?

a) 1852

b) 1832

c) 1871

d) 1707

17. When did Scotland become part of the UK?

a) 1817

b) 1707

c) 1807

d) 1832

18. Which of the following empires had Tyrol, Lombardy and Venetia, Hungary etc before the industrial revolution?

a) The British Empire

b) The Ottoman Empire

c) The Astro-Hungarian Empire

d) The Hapsburg Empire

19. In which of the following countries industrialisation was more advanced than the other countries in the European continent?

a) Germany

b) France

c) Russia

d) None of the above

20. Which of the following countries were part of the Vienna Congress?

a) England, Prussia, Russia and Australia

b) Austria, England, Prussia and Russia

c) France, England, Poland and Russia

d) Poland, Germany, England and France

21. Which of the following regions was given to Russia after the Vienna Congress?

a) Poland

b) Saxony

c) Prussia

d) None of the above

22. After the Vienna congress, England got which of the following territories?

a) Saxony

b) Lombardy and Venetia

c) Belgium

d) None of the above

23. Which of the following countries got Lombardy and Venetia after the Vienna Congress?

a) Austria

b) Russia

c) Prussia

d) England

24. Which of the following was set up to the North of France to prevent its territorial expansion at the Vienna Congress?

a) Piedmont

b) Lombardy and Venetia

c) Belgium

d) The Kingdom of Netherlands

25. Assertion : A series of states were established around France at the Vienna congress

Reasons: The super powers who defeated Napoleon didn’t want France to expand its territory.

a)     Both A and R are true but R doesn’t explain A

b)     A is True but R is False

c)     Both A and R are True and R explains A

d)     A is False but R is True

26. Giuseppe Mazzini fought for the unification of which of the following countries?

a) Germany

b) Italy

c) France

d) None of the above

27. Which of the following was included in the Kingdom of Netherlands when it was established?

a) Northern Ireland

b) Scotland

c) Poland

d) Belgium

28. Belgium broke away from the Kingdom of Netherlands in which year?

a) 1830

b) 1831

c) 1832

d) 1815

29. Which of the following were called the Junkers of Prussia?

a) The Courtiers of the King

b) The big landlords

c) The High Ranked Army officials

d) The Liberal Revolutionaries

30. Louis Phillipe was made the King after which of the following revolutions?

a) July Revolution of 1830

b) The October Revolution of 1848

c) The Revolution of the Liberal Nationals in German States

d) None of the above

31. The female figure that represented France was

a) Claudia

b) Marianne

c) Helen

d) None of the above

32. Count Cavour was the Minister of

a) Savoy Sardinia

b) Papal State

c) The kingdom of the Two Sicilies

d) Naples

33. Which among the following founded a woman’s journal and subsequently formed feminist political association?

a) Louis Otto Peters

b) Giuseppe Mazzini

c) Cavour

d) Bismarck

34. In which of the following regions did Mazzini carryout revolution for which he was exiled?

a) Lombardy

b) Venetia

c) Liguria

d) Austria

35. Which of the following countries had already become republic when Sorrieu published his famous Pact between the Nations?

a) England and France

b) Poland and Greece

c) Switzerland and the USA

d) Germany and Italy

36. The All German national Assembly of the Frankfurt Parliament was held at the church of

a) St. Peter

b) St. Paul

c) St. Stephen

d) St. John

37. Assertion: Women were allowed to be in the Frankfurt Parliament as members to take decision

Reason: Women took part in revolutions that took place between 1830 and 1848

a)     Both A and R are true but R doesn’t explain A

b)     A is True but R is False

c)     Both A and R are True and R explains A

d)     A is False but R is True

38. Which of the following powers was not interested in extending their own control over the Balkans?

a) Russia

b) England

c) Switzerland

d) Germany

39. The Habsburgs were the rulers of

a) Austria-Hungary

b) The Dutch Republic

c) Germany

d) Switzerland

40. Which pair of images were used to represent colonies in the Map celebrating the British Empire?

a) Sword and Ring

b) Oak Leaves and Flag

c) Tigers, forests, and Elephants

d) People and Chain

41. Where was the tree of Liberty planted in

a) France

b) Russia

c) Germany

d) Italy

42. Which of the following famous personalities contributed in the unification of Italy?

a) Giuseppe Mazzini

b) Count Cavour

c) Giuseppe Garibaldi

d) All of these

43. Australian Chancellor ______ hosted the congress of Vienna

a) Carl Welcar

b) Duke Metternich

c) Bismarck

d) Victor Emanuel II

45. Which of the following countries did not the attend the congress of Vienna?

a) Britain

b) Russia

c) Prussia

d) Switzerland

46. Who said, “When France sneezes, the rest of Europe catches cold”.?

a) Bismarck

b) Mazzini

c) Metternich

d) Johann Gottfried Herder

47. Which among is the reason for signing the Treaty of Vienna?

a) To restore monarchy all over Europe

b) To establish tariff barriers

c) To establish Democracies all over Europe

d) To divide the German confederation of 39 states

48. A political philosophy that cherished the importance of tradition is called

a) Liberalism

b) Conservatism

c) Socialism

d) Romanticism

49. Romanticism is a

a) Traditional Institution

b) Revolutionary Movement

c) cultural Movement

d) None of the above

50. Which of the following movements stress on Intuition, mystical feelings and emotions?

a) Liberalism

b) Conservatism

c) Socialism

d) Romanticism

51. i) Romanticism stressed on Intuition, mystical feelings, and emotions

      ii) Romanticism advocated territorial expansion and glorified heroism.

a)     Both i) and ii) are True

b)     Both i) and ii) are False

c)     Only i) is False but ii) is True

d)     Only i)is True but ii) is False

 

Important Statements

 

1.     The Pact Between Nations – was a print prepared by Frederic Sorrieu in 1848

2.     The USA and Switzerland had already become republic by 1848

3.     Absolutist Rule means a rule by a Monarch who enjoys unlimited power

4.     Utopian Society: An imaginary society which is not likely to exist

5.     In Sorriuu’s utopian world, the peoples of nations were identified by Flags and National Dresses

6.     Nationalism: The desire of people having common identities to have their own nations. It is love and pride for one’s own nation and readiness to sacrifice to form and protect nation states

7.     Rebmann made the statement: ‘The people must seize their own freedom!’

The First Clear expression of Nationalism

8.      The ideas of la patrie (the fatherland) and le citoyen (the citizen) emphasised the notion of a united community enjoying equal rights under a constitution

9.     The Revolutionaries (of French Revolution) declared that it was the mission and the destiny of the French nation to liberate the peoples of Europe from despotism and to help other peoples of Europe to become nations.

Napoleon 

10.He brought back monarchy to France

11.In France he brought about equality before law, abolished privileges based on birth and gave right to property.

12. In the area conquerred, he abolished Feudalism, Serfdom, manorial dues and removed guild restrictions.

13.The initial enthusiasm in the areas conquerred turned into hostility as the administrative changes did not go hand in hand with political freedom

14.Three reasons contributed to hostility viz. a) Increased taxation b) severe censorship c) Forced conscription into French army to conquer the rest of Europe 

The Habsburg Empire

 

15.The empires of Europe were divided into kingdoms, Dutchies and Cantons whose rulers had their own autonomous territories.

16.Habsburg Empire had ruled over Austria-Hungary

 The Aristocracy and the New Middle Class (Society in the18th C Europe)

17.In 18th C Europe, there were only two classes found in the society

18.The Aristocrats owned large estates in the countryside and lived in bungalows in towns and cities

19.The Aristocratic families were tied by marriages

20.They spoke French for the purpose of diplomacy and high society

21.The peasantry of the 18th C Europe were of two kinds

22.In Western Europe, they were owners of small land or tenants

23.In Central and Eastern Europe, they were Serfs

24.The Middle Class emerged after Industrial revolution

25.Industrial revolution began in England; later it spread to other parts of Europe.

26.The liberal minded, educated middle class people developed the idea of Nationalism after abolishing aristocratic privileges and absolutist powers of the monarchs.

Liberalism: What it meant 

27.Liber means free. It has the root in Latin language

28.For middle class people, liberalism stood for freedom of individuals, equality of all and a Govt. by consent.

29.Politically Liberalism stood for Govt. by consent and universl suffrage.

30.Universal suffrage means right to vote irrespective of gender, religion, caste, class etc.

31.Even after revolution, only propertied men had the right to vote and right to contest

32.For a short time when Jacobins ruled, all men got the right to vote.

33.Napoleon reduced women to the status of passive citizens subjected to the authority of their fathers and husbands

34.In business arena, liberalism stood for free movement of goods, people and capital (Free market)

35.Elle was a measure of cloth

36.German region had 39 states and Prussia was the biggest and the strongest 

Zollverein, the Custom Union 

37.Zollverein was a custom union formed at the initiative of Prussia in 1834.

38.Zollverein created new economic freedom which allied with the demand for national unification

New Conservatism and the Vienna Congress

39.Napoleon was defeated by Austria, Prussia, Russia, and Britain (England)in 1815

40.Conservatism – A political philosophy that stressed the importance of tradition, established institutions and customs, and preferred gradual development to quick change.

41.Conservatives didn’t want to go back to pre-revolutionary times

42.They believed that a strong army, an efficient bureaucracy and a dynamic economy, abolition of Feudalism and Serfdom would strengthen the autocratic monarchies of Europe.

43.The Duke of Astria – Metternich hosted the Vienna Congress.

44.Objectives of the Vienna Congress

a)     undoing most of the changes that had come about in Europe during the Napoleonic wars.

b)     to prevent French expansion in future

c)     to restore the monarchies that had been overthrown by Napoleon and create a new conservative order in Europe.

45.After Vienna congress, the bourbon dynasty was restored in France.

46.Vienna Congress: (VC): The kingdom of Netherlands was established to the north which included Belgium

47.Genoa was added to the Piedmont in the south

48.Prussia got Saxony

49.Russia got Poland

50.Austria got Lombary and Venitia (It was recaptured by Count Cavour during Italian Unification)

51.The rule of conservative monarchs was autocratic: They didn’t tolerate dissent and criticism. They curbed revolutionary activities. They imposed censorship

Revolutionaries (Giuseppe Mazzini)

 

52.The liberal nationalist fought for freedom of press

53.Giuseppe Mazzini was born in 1807 in Genoa

54.GM was sent into exile for attempting a revolution in Liguria in 1831

55.GM became a member of Carbonari

56.GM founded Young Europe in Bern and Young Italy in Marseilles

57.He said, “God has intended nations to be the natural units of Mankind. Italy can no longer exist in patches”.

58.Metternich termed GM as the greatest enemy of his social order (Monarchy)

59.The bourbon dynasty was overthrown, and Louis Phillip was made the constitutional monarch in July 1830 Revolution.

60.Metternich said, “When France sneezes, rest of the Europe catches cold”.

61.Belgium broke away from the Kingdom of Netherlands.

62.Greece was ruled by the Ottoman Turks

63.Greece was considered the cradle of European civilization.

64.Lord Byron was the English poet who collected funds and personally went to Greece to fight for its independence. He died of fever.

65.Greece became free in 1832 as per the Treaty of Constantinople.

Romanticism

66.Romanticism was a cultural movement

67.Romantic artists criticised glorification of science, reason, and logic

68.Romantic artists stress on Intuition, emotions, and mystical feelings.

69.Romantic artists believed collective heritage; common cultural past should be the bases of a nation.

 

Johann Gottfried Herder and Karol Kurpinski

70.Herder claimed that the true German culture was to be discovered among common people (Das Volk)

71.Herder said that it was through folk songs, folk poetry and dances (Volksgeist) the true spirit of nation was to be discovered.

72.Poland was portioned between Russia, Prussia and Austria at the end of 18th C.

73.Karpinski kept the nationalist sentiment alive by celebrating operas and music, turning folk dances (polonaise and mazurka) into nationalist symbol.

74.During the Russian occupation, the Bishops and Priests were sent to Siberia when they refused to use Russian language.

 

Hunger, Hardship, and popular Revolt

 

75.Population of Europe increased drastically in the early 19th C.

76.Industrialisation was more advanced in England than other regions of the European continent

77.People in France revolted due to shortage of food, bankruptcy (pauperism) and unemployment.

78.Louis Philippe fled away.

79.National assembly was proclaimed as a Republic

80.Right to vote was given to all men.

81.National Workshops were established to ensure right to work

82.The contactors paid low wages. So, the weavers of Silesia revolted.

 

Revolution of the Liberal Nationalists 1848

83.This was lead by prosperous middle class people consisting of professionals, businessmen and prosperous artisans

84.831 elected representatives went on a festive procession and assembled at the Church of St. Paul in Frankfurt.

85. The drafted the constitution to make Germany a Constitutional Monarchy.

86.Friedrich Wilhelm IV, the king of Prussia, rejected it and joined other monarchs who opposed such revolutions.

87.The upper class consisting of the military, aristocrats and ‘Junkers’ (big landlords) didn’t support the revolution

88. The middle-class revolutionaries resisted the demands of poor artisans and workers.

89.Army was called into disband this Frankfurt Parliament

90.Women took part in Revolution, but they were allowed to be there in the Frankfurt Parliament only as observers.

91.Feminist – Awareness of women’s rights and interests based on the belief of the social, economic, and political equality of the genders

Impact of Revolutions on Central and Eastern Europe

92. serfdom and bonded labour were abolished both in the Habsburg dominions and in Russia

93.The Habsburg rulers granted

94.more autonomy to the Hungarians in 1867

Army as the architect of Nations

95.Nationalist sentiments were manipulated by conservatives for promoting state power and achieving political domination over Europe

96.Army became the architect of nations as in process of Unification of Germany and Unification of Italy 

Unification of Germany

 

97. Otto von Bismarck, was the architect of Germany

98.Three wars over seven years – with Austria, Denmark, and France – ended in Prussian victory.

99.The Prussian king, William I, was proclaimed German Emperor in a ceremony held at Versailles at the Hall of Mirrors

100.  The nation-building process in Germany had demonstrated the dominance of Prussian state power.

 

Unification of Italy

 

101.   During the middle of the nineteenth century, Italy was divided into seven states, of which only one, Sardinia-Piedmont, was ruled by an Italian princely house.

102.  In the eyes of the ruling elites of this region, a unified Italy offered them the possibility of economic development and political dominance

103. Through a tactful diplomatic alliance with France engineered by Cavour, Sardinia-Piedmont succeeded in defeating the Austrian forces in 1859.

104. As the Garibaldi’s Army of Thousands reached Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, the Spanish rulers fled away.

105.  In 1861 Victor Emmanuel II was proclaimed king of united Italy.

106.  The peasant masses who had supported Garibaldi in southern Italy had never heard of Italia and believed that ‘La Talia’ was Victor Emmanuel’s wife!

The Strange Case of Britain

 

107.  In Britain, the nation building was a long-drawn process

108. The primary identities of the people who inhabited the British Isles were ethnic ones – such as English, Welsh, Scot or Irish.

109.  England was able to exert its influence as it grew in strength and wealth

110. The English Parliament was instrumental in forging the Great Britain.

111. The Act of Union 1707 signed between England and Scotland resulted in the formation of the ‘United Kingdom of Great Britain’

112. The Scottish Highlanders were forbidden to speak their Gaelic language or wear their national dress

113. Ireland was a country deeply divided between Catholics and Protestants.

114. The English helped the Protestants of Ireland to establish their dominance over a largely Catholic country

115. Wolf Tone and his United Irish men revolted but it failed

116. The British Flag is Union Jack and the National Anthem – God Save our Noble King

 

Visualising the Nation )

 

117.