- Recall the vertical power sharing that you have studied in the last lesson. This form of power sharing is called Federalism.
- Federalism is a system of government in which the power is divided between the central authority and various constituent units of the country.
- The one at the top level is responsible for a few subjects of common national interest.
- The other governments at the level of provinces or states are responsible for day-to-day administration of the state.
- The central and the state governments enjoy their power independent of the other.
Types of Federations
The power sharing arrangement between the central government and the state governments varies from one federation of the other. It is mainly determined by the historical context in which the Federation was formed. We find two different types of federations. They are as follows.
What Makes India a Federation?
Division of power between the Union Govt. and the State Governments
The Practice of Federalism in India
Reorganisation of States
- The success of federalism also depends upon how the ruling parties and leaders followed these arrangements.
- Ideally, there should be cordial relationship between the central government and the state governments.
How was the relationship earlier?
- For a long time, the same party ruled both at the Centre and in most of the
- The state governments did not enjoy their autonomous power.
- India, during those days, was only Federal in principle but Unitary in practice.
- When a different party came to power in the state, the central government would arbitrarily dismiss the state government.
- This also went against the principles of Federalism.
How is the relationship now?
- All this changed significantly of the 1990.
- This was the beginning of the era of coalition governments.
- Since no our record clear majority in the Loka Sabha, the major national parties formed an alliance with regional parties to form government in the Centre.
- This led to a new culture of power sharing and respect for regional autonomy of the state governments.
- A major judgment of the supreme court has made it difficult for the central government to dismiss the state governments in an arbitrary manner.
- Thus, Federal Power sharing is more effective today than it was in the early years.